The theory of dark matter stems from the observation that the rotational velocities of galaxies and the velocities of galaxies within clusters are much greater than can be explained by the gravitational field due to the mass of the stars and gas clouds, or what is referred to as baryonic matter. In the standard theory of dark matter it is hypothesized that non-baryonic particles, referred to as WIMP's (Weak Interacting Massive Particles), provide the additional gravitational field required. However, such non-baryonic particles have not been detected. In addition, standard dark matter theory does not agree with the Baryonic Tully-Fisher Relationship (BTFR). The BTFR is an empirical relationship between the baryonic mass of a galaxy and its rotational velocity.
I have proposed an alternative to the standard dark matter theory. In my most recent papers a model of gravitational anti-screening has been presented. In this model baryonic masses are surrounded by a sea of virtual mass dipoles. This is analogous to quantum electrodynamic theory where charges are surrounded by a sea of virtual electric dipoles. In QED the virtual electric dipoles result in a screening effect that leads to the value of the observed charge of a particle being less than its actual bare charge. In the gravitational case the virtual mass dipoles result in an anti-screening effect and in the case of galaxies leads to their observed masses being greater than their baryonic masses. The theory leads to agreement with with the rotation curve of the Galaxy, observed features in the rotation curves of other spiral galaxies, the velocity dispersions and shear values for the Coma cluster, and the line-of-sight velocity difference of binary galaxies. The BTFR is a natural consequence of the theory and the theory has also been shown to agree with a geometrically flat universe and to lead to an accelerated universal expansion.
The publications relating to my theory are as follows:
Velocity relationships of isolated galaxy pairs in support of MOND-type theories; Penner, A.R., 2023, MNRAS, 522 (3), 4003